- Perennial Streams in the hilly regions
- Canal drops
- Dam/Check dam over flows
- Waste water
How does it work?
- Potential energy is converted into kinetic energy.
- This energy is transmitted to a turbine runner which changes it to a mechanical energy ( shaft power).
P = 6 X Q X H Watts.Q – flow rate in lps
H – Head in meter
Overall efficiency assumed – 60%
- Civil and hydraulics
- A diversion weir
- Intake works
- A water channel
- Masonry lining or Concrete
- Flumes or aqueducts made from sheet metal, wood, pipes,etc
- A forebay tank
- Mild steel
- The Powerhouse
- A Tailrace
- Cheapest of all renewable energy options.
- It does not consume the water, after use it is available for other purposes.
- Power is usually continuously available on demand.
- Given a reasonable head, it is a concentrated energy source.
- The energy available is predictable.
- No fuel and limited maintenance are required, so running costs are low (compared with diesel power).
- It is a long-lasting and robust technology; systems can last for 50 years or more without major new investments.
- Technology is simple enough to be transferred and accessed in the remote rural areas.
- Allows direct access of water resources by the community and could meet its energy requirements.
- Is small enough to avoid over exploitation of natural resources.
- Is a decentralised unit and could provide wider access to the decision making process of the community.
- Mostly site specific.
- Reliable site data has to be collected for guaranteeing output.
- Maximum useful power output is limited for a site, making capacity expansion difficult.
- Seasonal variations affect the performance
Uses of Power
- Off grid home lighting
- Home power for lighting
- TV, fridge, etc
- Off grid resort /hotel power
- Mechanical power for generator
- Small industries electrical requirement
- Street lighting
- Grid connected hydro for 24/7
Measure the Flow rate and Height difference.
- Bucket method
- Float method
- Salt dilution
- Water tube
- Civil survey